# Download Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry

Inorganic chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Lewis acid catalysis wikipedia , lookup

Debye–Hückel equation wikipedia , lookup

Spinodal decomposition wikipedia , lookup

Click chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Rate equation wikipedia , lookup

Atomic theory wikipedia , lookup

Physical organic chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Green chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Double layer forces wikipedia , lookup

Nucleophilic acyl substitution wikipedia , lookup

Acid–base reaction wikipedia , lookup

Acid dissociation constant wikipedia , lookup

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry wikipedia , lookup

Analytical chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Relativistic quantum mechanics wikipedia , lookup

Liquid–liquid extraction wikipedia , lookup

Implicit solvation wikipedia , lookup

Computational chemistry wikipedia , lookup

Geometrical frustration wikipedia , lookup

Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q1. Copper metal can be recovered from a solution of copper(II) sulfate by the addition of scrap metal iron to the solution. The equation for the reaction is: Fe(s) + CuSO4(aq) → Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq) What mass of copper would be obtained if 1.0 kg of scrap iron was added to enough copper sulfate to react all the iron? A1. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of iron produces 1 mol of copper. The m , where m is the mass in grams, and M is the amount of each is found by using n = M molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of Fe = 55.8 g mol–1 and Cu = 63.5 g mol–1. n ( Cu ) 1 = n ( Fe ) 1 1000 = 17.9 mol ∴ n(Cu) = n(Fe) = 55.8 ∴ m(Cu) = 17.9 × 63.5 = 1138 g = 1.1 kg Q2. What is the mass of iron produced by reacting 25.0 g of zinc with excess iron (III) oxide according to the equation: Fe2O3(s) + 3Zn(s) → 3ZnO(s) + 2Fe(s) A2. The balanced equation shows that 3 mol of zinc produces 2 mol of iron. The amount m of each is found by using n = , where m is the mass in grams and M is the molar M mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of Fe = 55.8 g mol–1 and Zn = 65.4 g mol–1. n ( Fe ) 2 = n ( Zn ) 3 2 2 25.0 ∴ n(Fe) = × n(Zn) = × = 0.255 mol 3 3 65.4 ∴ m(Fe) = 0.255 × 55.8 = 14.2 g Q3. Hydrogen burns in oxygen to produce water. a Write a balanced equation for this reaction. b Calculate the mass of oxygen required to react with 10.0 g of hydrogen. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 1 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A3. a b 2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(g) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of oxygen reacts with 2 mol of m hydrogen. The amount of each is found using n = , where m is the mass in M grams and M is the molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of O2 = 32.0 g mol–1 and H2 = 2.00 g mol–1. n ( O2 ) 1 = n( H2 ) 2 n ( H 2 ) 10 1 ∴ n(O2) = = × = 2.5 mol 2 2 2 ∴ m(O2) = 2.5 × 32.0 = 80 g Q4. Octane (C8H18) is a component of petrol. It burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. Energy is released during this reaction. The equation for this reaction is: 2C8H18(g) + 25O2(g) → 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(g) a b Calculate the mass of oxygen required to react with 200 g of octane. Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide produced in part a. A4. The balanced equation shows that 25 mol of oxygen reacts with 2 mol of octane, m producing 16 mol of carbon dioxide. The amount of each is found using n = , M where m is the mass in grams and M is the molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of CO2 = 44.0 g mol–1, O2 = 32.0 g mol–1 and C8H18 = 114 g mol–1. n ( O2 ) 25 a ∴ = n ( C 8 H 18 ) 2 228 = 1.75 mol n(C8H18) = 114 25 × 1.75 = 21.9 mol ∴ n(O2) = 2 ∴ m(O2) = 21.9 × 32.0 = 701.8 g n ( O 2 ) 16 b ∴ = =8 n ( C 8 H 18 ) 2 228 = 1.75 mol n(C8H18) = 114 n(CO2) = 8 × 1.75 = 14 mol ∴ m(CO2) = 14 × 44.0 = 616 g Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 2 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q5. Calculate the masses of potassium perchlorate (KClO4) and potassium chloride (KCl) produced from 26.0 g of potassium chlorate (KClO3) reacting according to the equation: 4KClO3(s) → 3KClO4(s) + KCl(s) A5. The balanced equation shows that 4 mol of KClO3 produces 3 mol of KClO4. The m amount of each is found by using n = , where m is the mass in grams and M is the M molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of KClO3 = 122.6 g mol–1 and KClO4 = 138.6 g mol–1. n(KClO4) = 3 n(KClO3) = 4 3 3 26.0 ∴ n(KClO4) = × n(KClO3) = × = 0.159 mol 4 4 122.6 ∴ m(KClO4) = 0.159 × 138.6 = 22.0 g The balanced equation shows that 4 mol of KClO3 produces 1 mol of KCl. The m amount of each is found by using n = , where m is the mass in grams and M is the M molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of KClO3 = 122.6 g mol–1 and KCl = 74.6 g mol–1. n(KCl) = 1 n(KClO3) = 4 1 1 26.0 ∴ n(KCl) = × n(KClO3) = × = 0.0530 mol 4 4 122.6 ∴ m(KCl) = 0.0530 × 74.6 = 4.0 g Q6. What volume of 0.250 M H2SO4 is needed to react completely with 13.5 g of NaOH? 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) A6. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of sulfuric acid reacts with 2 mol of sodium m hydroxide. The amount of NaOH is found using n = , where m is the mass in M grams and M is the molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar masses of NaOH = 40.0 g mol–1. The volume of H2SO4 is found by using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. n ( H 2 SO 4 ) 1 = n ( NaOH) 2 1 13.5 = 0.169 mol n(H2SO4) = × 2 40.0 0.169 = 0.675 L = 675 mL ∴ V(H2SO4) = 0.250 Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 3 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q7. 200 mL of 0.105 M silver nitrate is added dropwise to 25 mL of sodium chloride until all the chloride precipitates as silver chloride: AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) a What is the concentration of the original sodium chloride solution? b What is the mass of silver chloride precipitated? A7. a b The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of sodium chloride reacts with 1 mol of silver nitrate. The amount of each is found by using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. n ( NaCl ) 1 = n ( AgNO 3 ) 1 n(AgNO3) = 0.105 × 0.200 = 0.0210 mol n(NaCl) = 0.0210 mol 0.210 ∴ c(NaCl) = = 0.84 M 0.025 The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of silver chloride is formed from 1 mol m , where m is of silver nitrate. The mass of silver chloride is found using n = M the mass in grams and M is the molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar mass of AgCl = 143.4 g mol–1. n ( AgCl ) 1 = n ( AgNO 3 ) 1 from part a: n(AgNO3) = 0.0210 mol n(AgCl) = 0.0210 mol ∴ m(AgCl) = 0.0210 × 143.4 = 3.01 g Q8. When 24.00 mL of a solution of H2SO4 is reacted completely with 18.50 mL of 0.300 M BaCl2, a precipitate of BaSO4 forms. a Write a balanced equation for the reaction. b Determine the concentration of the H2SO4. A8. a BaCl2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2HCl(aq) b The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of sulfuric acid reacts with 1 mol of barium chloride. The amount of each is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. n ( H 2 SO 4 ) 1 = n ( BaCl 2 ) 1 n(BaCl2) = 0.300 × 0.0185 = 0.005 55 mol n(H2SO4) = 0.005 55 mol 0.005 55 = 0.231 M ∴ c(H2SO4) = 0.024 Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 4 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q9. Lead(II) nitrate and magnesium sulfate solutions react together to form a precipitate of lead(II) sulfate according to the equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + MgSO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) Which reactant would be in excess, and by how many moles, if solutions containing the following amounts of lead(II) nitrate and magnesium sulfate were added to each other? a 1.0 mol of lead(II) nitrate and 2.0 mol of magnesium sulfate b 0.50 mol of lead(II) nitrate and 2.0 mol of magnesium sulfate c 3.0 mol of lead(II) nitrate and 0.20 mol of magnesium sulfate A9. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of lead(II) nitrate reacts with 1 mol of magnesium sulfate. n ( Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 ∴ = n ( MgSO 4 ) 1 a Magnesium sulfate is in excess by (2.0 – 1.0) = 1.0 mol b Magnesium sulfate is in excess by (2.0 – 0.50) = 1.5 mol c Lead nitrate is in excess by (3.0 – 0.20) = 2.8 mol Q10. 30.0 g of Ca is added to 30.0 g of water and allowed to react according to the following equation: Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) a Calculate the amount in mole of each reactant. b Which reactant is the limiting reagent? c What is the mass of the Ca(OH)2 formed? A10. a b 30.0 = 0.750 mol 40.0 30.0 n(H2O) = = 1.67 mol 18.0 Use n(Ca) provided to find n(H2O) needed to react completely with the Ca. From the equation, 2 mol H2O reacts with 1 mol of Ca. n ( H 2O ) 2 = n ( Ca) 1 2 n(H2O) required = × n(Ca) = 1.500 mol 1 n(H2O) available = 1.67 mol So, all Ca will be used and is therefore the limiting reagent. H2O is in excess by 1.67 – 1.50 = 0.17 mol n(Ca) = Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 5 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry c The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of Ca(OH)2 will form for every 1 mol of m , where m is the mass Ca that reacts. The mass of Ca(OH)2 is found using n = M in grams and M is the molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar mass of Ca(OH)2 = 74.1 g mol–1. n ( Ca(OH) 2 ) 1 = n ( Ca) 1 n(Ca(OH)2) = n(Ca) = 0.750 mol ∴ m(Ca(OH)2) = 0.750 × 74.1 = 55.4 g Q11. 100.0 mL of 1.00 M KOH is mixed with 32.5 mL of 2.00 M H3PO4, and allowed to react according to the equation: 3KOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) → K3PO4(aq) + 3H2O(l) a Calculate the amount in mole of each reactant and determine the limiting reagent. b What is the mass of the K3PO4 formed? A11. a b The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of phosphoric acid reacts with 3 mol of potassium hydroxide. The amount of each is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1, and V is the volume in litres. n(KOH) = 1.00 × 0.0100 = 0.0100 mol n(H3PO4) = 2.0 × 0.0325 = 0.0650 mol Use n(KOH) provided to find n(H3PO4) required to react completely with the KOH. From the equation, 3 mol of KOH reacts with 1 mol H3PO4. n ( H 3 PO 4 ) 1 = n ( KOH) 3 1 1 n(H3PO4) required = × n(KOH) = × 0.100 = 0.0333 mol 3 3 n(H3PO4) available = 0.0650 mol So, all KOH will be used and is therefore the limiting reagent. H3PO4 is in excess by 0.0650 – 0.0333 = 0.0317 mol The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of K3PO4 will form for every 3 mol of m , where m is the mass KOH that reacts. The mass of K3PO4 is found using n = M in grams and M is the molar mass. A periodic table is used to calculate the molar mass of K3PO4 = 212.3 g mol–1. n ( K 3 PO 4 ) 1 = n ( KOH) 3 1 1 n(K3PO4) = × n(KOH) = × 0.100 = 0.0333 mol 3 3 ∴ m(K3PO4) = 0.0333 × 212.3 = 7.08 g Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 6 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q12. A solution of nitric acid is placed in a burette in order to determine its concentration. 20.00 mL of 0.099 27 M potassium hydroxide is placed, using a pipette, in a conical flask. When the equivalence point was reached, 18.26 mL of the acid was delivered by the burette. Calculate the concentration of the nitric acid, given that the reaction can be represented by the equation: HNO3(aq) + KOH(aq) → KNO3(aq) + H2O(l) A12. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of nitric acid reacts with 1 mol of potassium hydroxide. The amount of each substance is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. n ( HNO 3 ) 1 = n ( KOH) 1 n(KOH) = 0.099 27 × 0.0200 = 0.001 985 mol n(HNO3) = 0.001 985 mol 0.001985 = 0.1087 mol L–1 ∴ c(HNO3) = 0.018 26 Q13. 22.40 mL of a solution of HCl reacts with 20.00 mL of 0.200 M K2CO3. a Write a balanced molecular equation for the reaction. b Determine the concentration of the HCl. A13. a b 2HCl(aq) + K2CO3(aq) → 2KCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) The balanced equation shows that 2 mol of hydrochloric acid reacts with 1 mol of potassium carbonate. The amount of each substance is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. n ( HCl ) 2 = n ( K 2 CO 3 ) 1 n(K2CO3) = 0.200 × 0.0200 = 0.004 00 mol 2 n(HCl) = × n(K2CO3) = 0.008 00 mol 1 0.008 00 = 0.3572 mol L–1 ∴ c(HCl) = 0.022 40 Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 7 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Chapter review Q14. Carbon dioxide can be prepared in the laboratory by reacting magnesium carbonate with dilute hydrochloric acid according to the equation: MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) If 10.0 g of CO2 is produced, calculate: a the mass of magnesium carbonate reacted b the mass of hydrochloric acid reacted A14. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of magnesium carbonate reacts with 2 mol of HCl, producing 1 mol of carbon dioxide. The amount of each is found using m n= , where m is the mass in grams and M is the molar mass. Use a periodic table M to calculate the molar masses. M(HCl) = 36.5 g mol–1, M(CO2) = 44.0 g mol–1 and M(MgCO3) = 84.3 g mol–1. n ( MgCO 3 ) 1 a = n ( CO 2 ) 1 10.0 = 0.227 mol n(CO2) = 44 n(MgCO3) = 0.227 mol ∴ m(MgCO3) = 0.227 × 84.3 = 19.2 g n ( HCl ) 2 b = n ( CO 2 ) 1 n(HCl) = 2 × 0.227 = 0.454 mol ∴ m(HCl) = 0.454 × 36.5 = 16.6 g Q15. The reaction for the extraction of aluminium from alumina (Al2O3) can be represented by the equation: 2Al2O3(l) + 3C(s) → 3CO2(g) + 4Al(s) For the production of 1000 kg of aluminium, calculate: a the mass of alumina required b the mass of carbon required c the mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere A15. a The balanced equation shows that 2 mol of alumina reacts to produce 4 mol of m , where m is the mass in aluminium. The amount of each is found using n = M grams and M is the molar mass. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(Al) = 27.0 g mol–1 and M(Al2O3) = 102 g mol–1. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 8 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry b c n ( Al 2 O 3 ) 2 = n ( Al) 4 1000 000 = 37 037 mol n(Al) = 27 2 n(Al2O3) = × 37 037 = 18 520 mol 4 ∴ m(Al2O3) = 18 520 × 102 = 1889 kg n(C) 3 = n ( Al) 4 1000 000 n(Al) = = 37 037 mol 27 3 n(C) = × 37 037 = 27 777.75 mol 4 333 333 = 333.3 kg ∴ m(C) = 27 777.75 × 12 = 1000 n ( CO 2 ) 3 = n ( Al) 4 1000 000 = 37 037 mol n(Al) = 27 3 n(CO2) = × 37 037 = 27 777.75 mol 4 1 222 221 = 1222 kg ∴ m(CO2) = 27 777.75 × 44 = 1000 Q16. The common drug aspirin is prepared from salicylic acid: C6H4(OH)COOH(s) + CH3COOH(l) → C6H4(OCOCH3)COOH(s) + H2O(l) salicylic acid aspirin What mass of salicylic acid is needed to prepare 300 g of aspirin? A16. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of salicylic acid reacts to produce 1 mol of m , where m is the mass in grams and aspirin. The amount of each is found using n = M M is the molar mass. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(salicylic acid) = 138 g mol–1 and M(aspirin) = 180 g mol–1. n (salicylic acid ) 1 = n (aspirin) 1 300 n(aspirin) = = 1.67 mol 180 n(salicylic acid) = 1.67 mol ∴ m(salicylic acid) = 1.67 × 138 = 230 g Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q17. Sodium hydroxide solution can be used to neutralise sulfuric acid solution. a Write a full equation for this neutralisation reaction. b What mass of sodium hydroxide is required to neutralise completely 5.00 g of sulfuric acid? A17. a b 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of sulfuric acid reacts with 2 mol of m , where m is the sodium hydroxide. The amount of each is found using n = M mass in grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(sulfuric acid) = 98 g mol–1 and M(sodium hydroxide) = 40 g mol–1. n ( NaOH ) 2 = n (sulfuric acid) 1 5.0 n(sulfuric acid) = = 0.051 mol 98 n(NaOH) = 2 × 0.051 mol = 0.102 mol ∴ m(NaOH) = 0.102 × 40 = 4.1 g Q18. Ethanol is produced during the fermentation of glucose according to the following equation: yeast C6H12O6(aq) ⎯⎯⎯→ 2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g) What mass of ethanol would be produced by the fermentation of 80.0 g of glucose? A18. The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of glucose produces 2 mol of ethanol. The m , where m is the mass in grams and M number of moles of each is found using n = M is the molar mass. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(glucose) = 180 g mol–1 and M(ethanol) = 46.0 g mol–1. n (ethanol ) 2 = n (glucose) 1 80.0 n(glucose) = = 0.444 mol 180 n(ethanol) = 2 × 0.444 mol = 0.888 mol ∴ m(ethanol) = 0.888 × 46.0 = 40.9 g Q19. Lead(II) chromate has been used as a bright yellow pigment in some paints. It can be produced by the reaction of potassium chromate with lead nitrate. a Write a full equation for this reaction. b What mass of potassium chromate is required to produce 6.0 g of lead chromate? c Suggest a reason why lead pigments are often replaced by other compounds. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 10 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A19. a b c K2CrO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbCrO4(s) + 2KNO3(aq) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of potassium chromate produces 1 mol m , where m is the of lead chromate. The amount of each is found using n = M mass in grams and M is the molar mass g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(K2CrO4) = 194 g mol–1 and M(PbCrO4) = 323 g mol–1. n ( K 2 CrO 4 ) 1 = n ( PbCrO 4 ) 1 6.0 = 0.0186 mol n(PbCrO4) = 323 n(K2CrO4) = 0.0186 mol ∴ m(K2CrO4) = 0.0186 × 194 = 3.6 g Lead pigments are toxic, particularly to small children. Because small children often chew paint on furniture, toys and other items, lead is being removed from paints. Q20. Hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through a silver nitrate solution until no further silver sulfide precipitates. The mass of precipitate obtained was 1.932 g. a Write a full equation for the reaction. b Calculate the mass of silver nitrate reacted. A20. a b H2S(g) + 2AgNO3(aq) → Ag2S(s) + 2HNO3(aq) The balanced equation shows that 2 mol of silver nitrate produces 1 mol of silver m , where m is the sulfide precipitate. The amount of each is found using n = M mass in grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(AgNO3) = 170.0 g mol–1 and M(Ag2S) = 248.1 g mol–1. n ( AgNO 3 ) 2 = 1 n (Ag 2 S) 1.932 = 0.007 787 mol n(Ag2S) = 248.1 n(AgNO3) = 2 × 0.007 787 mol = 0.015 57 mol ∴ m(AgNO3) = 0.015 57 × 170.0 = 2.648 g Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 11 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q21. Silver nitrate solution will react with sodium chloride solution to give a precipitate of silver chloride according to the equation: AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) If 2.4 g of silver nitrate in aqueous solution was added to excess sodium chloride: a what mass of silver chloride would be produced? b what mass of sodium nitrate would also be produced? c what mass of sodium chloride would react? A21. a b c The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of silver nitrate produces 1 mol of silver m , where m is the mass in chloride. The amount of each is found using n = M grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(AgNO3) = 170 g mol–1, M(AgCl) = 143.5 g mol–1, M(NaNO3) = 85 g mol–1 and M(NaCl) = 58.5 g mol–1. n ( AgCl ) 1 = n (AgNO 3 ) 1 2.4 n(AgNO3) = = 0.0141 mol 170 n(AgCl) produced = 0.0141 mol ∴ m(AgCl) produced = 0.0141 × 143.5 = 2.03 g n ( NaCl ) 1 = n (AgNO 3 ) 1 2.4 n(AgNO3) = = 0.0141 mol 170 n(NaNO3) produced = 0.0141 mol ∴ m(NaNO3) produced = 0.0141 × 85 = 1.2 g n ( NaCl ) 1 = n (AgNO 3 ) 1 2.4 n(AgNO3) = = 0.0141 mol 170 n(NaCl) produced = 0.0141 mol ∴ m(NaCl) produced = 0.0141 × 58.5 = 0.82 g Q22. Propane will burn in oxygen according to the equation: C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) If 6.70 g of propane was burned in excess oxygen: a what mass of carbon dioxide would be produced? b what mass of oxygen would be consumed in the reaction? c what mass of water would be produced? Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 12 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A22. a b c The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of propane produces 3 mol of carbon m , where m is the mass in dioxide. The amount of each is found using n = M grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(C3H8) = 44 g mol–1, M(CO2) = 44 g mol–1, M(H2O) = 18 g mol–1 and M(O2) = 32 g mol–1. n ( CO 2 ) 3 = n (C 3 H 8 ) 1 6.70 = 0.152 mol n(C3H8) = 44 n(CO2) produced = 3 × 0.152 mol = 0.457 mol ∴ m(CO2) produced = 0.457 × 44 = 20.1 g n ( O2 ) 5 = n (C 3 H 8 ) 1 6.70 = 0.152 mol n(C3H8) = 44 n(O2) produced = 5 × 0.152 mol = 0.76 mol ∴ m(O2) produced = 0.76 × 32 = 24.0 g n ( H 2O ) 4 = n (C 3 H 8 ) 1 6.70 = 0.152 mol n(C3H8) = 44 n(H2O) produced = 4 × 0.152 mol = 0.608 mol ∴ m(H2O) produced = 0.608 × 18 = 10.8 g Q23. Iron is produced when carbon monoxide reacts with iron(III) oxide according to the equation: Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) → 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g) If 85.0 tonnes of iron was produced in such a reaction: a what mass of carbon dioxide would also be produced? b what mass of iron(III) oxide must have reacted? c what mass of carbon monoxide must have reacted? A23. a The balanced equation shows that when 2 mol of iron is produced, 3 mol of m , carbon dioxide are also produced. The amount of each is found using n = M where m is the mass in grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(Fe) = 55.8 g mol–1, M(CO2) = 44 g mol–1, M(Fe2O3) = 159.6 g mol–1 and M(CO) = 28 g mol–1. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 13 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry n ( CO 2 ) 3 = n (Fe) 2 85 ×10 6 = 1.52 × 106 mol 55.8 3×1.52 ×10 6 mol = 2.28 × 106 mol n(CO2) produced = 2 ∴m(CO2) produced = 2.28 × 106 × 44 = 1.0 × 108 g = 100 tonnes n ( Fe 2 O 3 ) 1 = 2 n (Fe) n(Fe) = b 85 ×10 6 = 1.52 × 106 mol 55.8 1 n(Fe2O3) produced = × 1.52 × 106 mol = 0.76 × 106 mol 2 ∴ m(Fe2O3) produced = 0.76 × 106 × 159.6 = 121.3 tonnes n ( CO ) 3 = n (Fe) 2 n(Fe) = c 85 ×10 6 = 1.52 × 106 mol 55.8 3 n(CO) produced = × 1.52 × 106 mol = 2 280 000 mol 2 ∴ m(CO) produced = 2 280 000 × 28 = 64.0 tonnes n(Fe) = Q24. The fertiliser sulfate of ammonia ((NH4)2SO4) can be produced by the reaction between aqueous ammonia (NH3) and dilute sulfuric acid: 2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → (NH4)2SO4(aq) What mass of the fertiliser could be produced from 20 kg ammonia, assuming the process was only 80% efficient? A24. The balanced equation shows that 2 mol of ammonia produces 1 mol of the fertiliser. m , where m is the mass in grams and M is the The amount of each is found using n = M molar mass in g mol–1. Use a periodic table to calculate the molar masses. M(NH3) = 17 g mol–1 and M(fertiliser) = 132 g mol–1. n (fertiliser) 1 = n ( NH 3 ) 2 20 ×10 3 = 1176 mol 17 1176 mol = 588 mol n(fertiliser) = 2 n(NH3) = Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 14 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry However, the process is only 80% efficient. 80 × 588 mol = 471 mol ∴ n(fertiliser) = 100 ∴ m(fertiliser) = 471 × 132 = 62 000 g = 62 kg Q25. Consider the reaction expressed by this equation: Na2CO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) a What volume of 0.250 M H2SO4 is required to react with 20.00 mL of 0.200 M Na2CO3? b If 21.25 mL of Na2CO3 reacts completely with 18.75 mL of 0.520 M H2SO4, what is the concentration of the Na2CO3? A25. a b The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of sulfuric acid reacts with 1 mol of sodium carbonate. The amount of each is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. n ( H 2 SO 4 ) 1 = n ( Na 2 CO 3 ) 1 n(Na2CO3) = 0.200 × 0.020 = 0.0040 mol ∴ n(H2SO4) = 0.0040 mol 0.0040 = 16.0 mL V(H2SO4) = 0.250 n ( Na 2 CO 3 ) 1 = n (H 2 SO 4 ) 1 n(H2SO4) = 0.520 × 0.018 75 = 0.009 75 mol ∴ n(Na2CO3) = 0.009 75 mol 0.009 75 = 0.459 M ∴ c(Na2CO3) = 0.021 25 Q26. What volume of 0.100 M NaOH is required to react with: a 20.00 mL of 0.200 M HCl? b 1.5 L of 0.050 M H2SO4? A26. a The amount of each substance is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) n ( NaOH ) 1 = n (HCl) 1 n(HCl) = 0.200 × 0.020 = 0.0040 mol n(NaOH) = 0.0040 mol 0.0040 ∴ V(NaOH) = 0.100 = 40.0 mL Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 15 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry b 2NaOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) n ( NaOH ) 2 = n (H 2 SO 4 ) 1 n(H2SO4) = 1.5 × 0.050 = 0.075 mol n(NaOH) = 2 × 0.075 mol = 0.15 mol 0.15 ∴ V(NaOH) = 0.100 = 1.5 L Q27. What mass of KOH reacts with: a 17.5 mL of 2.00 M HCl? b 21.69 mL of 0.126 M H2SO4? A27. a b The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of KOH reacts with 1 mol of HCl. The amount is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the m , where m is the volume in litres. The amount of KOH is found by using n = M mass in grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) n ( KOH ) 1 = n (HCl) 1 n(HCl) = 2.00 × 0.0175 = 0.035 mol n(KOH) = 0.035 mol ∴ m(KOH) = 0.035 × 56.0 = 1.96 g 2KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) n ( KOH ) 2 = n (H 2 SO 4 ) 1 n(H2SO4) = 0.126 × 0.021 69 = 0.002 733 mol n(KOH) = 2 × 0.002 733 mol = 0.005 466 mol ∴ m(KOH) = 0.005 466 × 56.0 = 0.306 g Q28. Consider the reaction expressed by this equation: CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) → Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq) a What volume of 1.2 M CuSO4 is needed to react completely with 2.13 g of Zn? b What mass of Cu is formed when 17.9 mL of 1.2 M CuSO4 is completely reacted? A28. a CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) → Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of CuSO4 reacts with 1 mol of Zn metal. The amount can be found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 m , where m is the mass in grams and and V is the volume in litres, or using n = M M is the molar mass in g mol–1. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 16 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry b n ( CuSO 4 ) 1 = n ( Zn) 1 2.13 = 0.0326 mol n(Zn) = 65.4 n(CuSO4) = 0.0326 mol 0.0326 = 27.1 mL ∴ V(CuSO4) = 1.2 Using the equation above: n ( Cu ) 1 = n (CuSO 4 ) 1 n(CuSO4) = 1.2 × 0.0179 = 0.021 48 mol n(Cu) = 0.021 48 mol ∴ m(Cu) = 0.021 48 × 63.5 = 1.36 g Q29. 10.0 g of solid NaCl is added to a solution of AgNO3 and a precipitate forms. a Write balanced full and ionic equations for the reaction occurring. b What mass of precipitate forms when all the NaCl has reacted? c What volume of 1.4 M AgNO3 is needed to react with all the NaCl? A29. a b c AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of NaCl reacts with 1 mol of AgNO3. The amount of substance can be found using n = cV, where c is the concentration m in mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres, or using n = , where m is the mass in M grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. n(AgCl) 1 = n(NaCl) 1 10.0 = 0.171 mol n(NaCl) = 58.5 n(AgCl) = 0.171 mol ∴ m(AgCl) = 0.171 × 143.5 = 24.5 g n(AgNO 3 ) 1 = n(NaCl) 1 10.0 = 0.171 mol n(NaCl) = 58.5 n(AgNO3) = 0.171 mol 0.171 = 122 mL ∴ V(AgNO3) = 1.4 Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 17 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q30. Consider the reaction expressed by this equation: Ag(s) + 2HNO3(aq) → AgNO3(aq) + H2O(l) + NO2(g) a What mass of Ag reacts with 28.5 mL of 0.564 M HNO3? b What mass of NO2 is formed when 14.3 mL of 2.00 M HNO3 is reacted completely with Ag? c What volume of 2.00 M HNO3 is needed to react completely with 120 g of Ag? A30. a b c The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of Ag reacts with 2 mol of HNO3. The amount of substance can be found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in m mol L–1 and V is the volume in litres, or by using n = , where m is the mass in M grams, and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. n ( Ag ) 1 = n (HNO 3 ) 2 n(HNO3) = 0.564 × 0.0285 = 0.0161 mol 0.0161 mol = 0.00804 mol n(Ag) = 2 ∴ m(Ag) = 0.008 04 × 108 = 0.868 g n ( NO 2 ) 1 = n (HNO 3 ) 2 n(HNO3) = 2.00 × 0.0143 = 0.0286 mol 0.0286 mol = 0.0143 mol n(NO2) = 2 ∴ m(NO2) = 0.0143 × 46 = 0.658 g n ( HNO 3 ) 2 = n (Ag) 1 120 = 1.1111 mol n(Ag) = 108 n(HNO3) = 2 × 1.1111 mol = 2.2222 mol 2.2222 = 1.11 L ∴ V(HNO3) = 2.00 Q31. What mass of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) powder (active ingredient in many antacid tablets) would be required to relieve (neutralise) an acid stomach, if the acid in the stomach is 0.10 M HCl and the volume of the acid in the stomach is 800 mL? Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 18 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A31. The equation for the reaction is: 2HCl(aq) + Mg(OH)2(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of Mg(OH)2 reacts with 2 mol of HCl. The amount of HCl can be found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and m , where m is the mass V is the volume in litres, and the mass of Mg(OH)2 using n = M in grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. n ( Mg(OH) 2 ) 1 = n (HCl) 2 n(HCl) = 0.10 × 0.800 = 0.0800 mol 1 n(Mg(OH)2) = × 0.0800 = 0.0400 mol 2 ∴ m(Mg(OH)2) = 0.0400 mol × 58.3 g mol–1 = 2.33 g Q32. 23.8 mL of 0.320 M CaCl2 is mixed with solid Na2CO3. a Write a balanced equation for this reaction. b What mass of Na2CO3 is required to react completely with the CaCl2? c What is the mass of precipitate that forms in this reaction? A32. a CaCl2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → CaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) b The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of CaCl2 reacts with 1 mol of Na2CO3. The amount is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V m , where m is the is the volume in litres. The amount is also found using n = M mass in grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. n ( Na 2 CO 3 ) 1 = n (CaCl 2 ) 1 n(CaCl2) = 0.32 × 0.0238 = 0.007 62 mol n(Na2CO3) = 0.00762 mol ∴ m(Na2CO3) = 0.007 62 × 106 = 0.807 g n ( CaCO 3 ) 1 c = n (CaCl 2 ) 1 n(CaCl2) = 0.32 × 0.0238 = 0.007 62 mol n(CaCO3) = 0.00762 mol ∴ m(CaCO3) = 0.007 62 × 100 = 0.762 g Q33. Solid zinc is reacted with a solution of hydrochloric acid. a Write a balanced equation for the reaction. b What mass of zinc is needed to react with 23.7 mL of 0.730 HCl? c What mass of gas is formed when: i 29.45 mL of 0.730 M HCl is reacted completely? ii 1.56 g of Zn is reacted completely? Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 19 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A33. a b c Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g) The balanced equation shows that 1 mol of Zn reacts with 2 mol of HCl. The amount is found using n = cV, where c is the concentration in mol L–1 and V is the m , where m is the mass in volume in litres. The amount is also found using n = M grams and M is the molar mass in g mol–1. n ( Zn ) 1 = n (HCl) 2 n(HCl) = 0.730 × 0.0237 = 0.0173 mol 0.0173 n(Zn) = = 0.008 65 mol 2 ∴ m(Zn) = 0.008 65 × 65.4 = 0.566 g n( H2 ) 1 i = n (HCl) 2 n(HCl) = 0.730 × 0.029 45 = 0.0215 mol 0.0215 = 0.010 75 mol n(H2) = 2 ∴ m(H2) = 0.010 75 ×2 = 0.021 g n( H2 ) 1 ii = n ( Zn) 1 1.56 = 0.0239 n(Zn) = 65.4 n(H2) = 0.0239 mol ∴ m(H2) = 0.0239 × 2 = 0.048 g Q34. Potassium iodide and lead(II) nitrate solutions react together to form a precipitate of lead(II) iodide according to the equation: 2KI(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) → PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) a In each of the following cases, determine which of the two reactants is in excess and by what amount (in mol): i 1.0 mol of potassium iodide and 1.0 mol of lead(II) nitrate ii 0.50 mol of potassium iodide and 2.0 mol of lead(II) nitrate iii 3.0 mol of potassium iodide and 1.5 mol of lead(II) nitrate b In each of the following cases calculate the mass of the precipitate formed: i 1.0 g of lead(II) nitrate and 1.0 g of potassium iodide ii 0.60 g of lead(II) nitrate and 2.6 g of potassium iodide iii 2.6 g of lead(II) nitrate and 0.6 g of potassium iodide A34. a i n(KI) = 1.0 mol n(Pb(NO3)2) = 1.0 mol Use n(KI) provided to find n(Pb(NO3)2) needed to react completely with the KI. From the equation, 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2 reacts with 2 mol KI. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 20 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry n ( Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 = = 0 .5 n (KI) 2 1 1 × n(KI) = ×1.0 = 0.5 mol 2 2 n(Pb(NO3)2) available = 1 mol All KI will be used and Pb(NO3)2 is in excess. So Pb(NO3)2 is in excess by (1.0 – 0.5) = 0.5 mol ii n(KI) = 0.50 mol n(Pb(NO3)2) = 2 mol Use n(KI) provided to find n(Pb(NO3)2) needed to react completely with the KI. From the equation, 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2 reacts with 2 mol KI. n ( Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 = n (KI) 2 1 1 n(Pb(NO3)2) required = × n(KI) = × 0.50 = 0.25 mol 2 2 n(Pb(NO3)2) available = 2 mol So all KI will be used and Pb(NO3)2 is in excess. So Pb(NO3)2 is in excess by (2.0 – 0.25) = 1.75 mol = 1.8 mol (to 2 significant figures) iii n(KI) = 3 mol n(Pb(NO3)2) = 1.5 mol Use n(KI) provided to find n(Pb(NO3)2) needed to react completely with the KI. From the equation, 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2 reacts with 2 mol of KI. n ( Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 = n (KI) 2 1 1 n(Pb(NO3)2) required = × n(KI) = × 3 = 1.5 mol 2 2 n(Pb(NO3)2) available = 1.5 mol So all Pb(NO3)2 and all the KI will be used. So neither reactant is in excess. 1.0 = 0.006 02 mol i n(KI) = 166 1.0 = 0.003 02 mol n(Pb(NO3)2) = 331 Use n(KI) provided to find n(Pb(NO3)2) needed to react completely with the KI. From the equation, 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2 reacts with 2 mol of KI. n ( Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 = 2 n (KI) 1 1 n(Pb(NO3)2) required = × n(KI) = × 0.00602 = 0.00301 mol 2 2 n(Pb(NO3)2) available = 0.003 02 mol So all KI will be used and Pb(NO3)2 is in excess by a very small amount (0.003 02 – 0.003 01) = 0.000 01 mol So, n(Pb(NO3)2) required = b Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 21 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A balanced equation shows that 1 mol of PbI2 precipitate will form for every 2 mol of KI that reacts. n ( PbI 2 ) 1 = n (KI) 2 0.006 02 = 0.003 01 mol n(PbI2) = 2 ∴ m(PbI2) = 0.003 01 × 461 = 1.39 g 2.6 = 0.015 66 mol ii n(KI) = 166 0.60 = 0.001 81 mol n(Pb(NO3)2) = 331 Use n(Pb(NO3)2) provided to find n(KI) needed to react completely with the Pb(NO3)2. From the equation, 2 mol of KI reacts with 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2. n ( KI ) 2 = n (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 n(KI) required = 2 × n(Pb(NO3)2) = 2 × 0.001 81 = 0.003 62 mol n(KI) available = 0.015 66 mol So all Pb(NO3)2 will be used and KI is in excess by: 0.015 66 – 0.003 62 = 0.012 04 mol A balanced equation shows that 1 mol of PbI2 precipitate will form for every 2 mol of KI that reacts. n ( PbI 2 ) 1 = n (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 0.00181 = 0.001 81 mol n(PbI2) = 1 ∴ m(PbI2) = 0.001 81 × 461 = 0.84 g 0.6 = 0.003 61 mol iii n(KI) = 166 2.6 = 0.007 85 mol n(Pb(NO3)2) = 331 Use n(KI) provided to find n(Pb(NO3)2) needed to react completely with the KI. From the equation, 1 mol of Pb(NO3)2 reacts with 2 mol of KI. n ( Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) 1 = 2 n (KI) 1 1 n(Pb(NO3)2) required = × n(KI) = × 0.003 61 = 0.001 805 mol 2 2 n(Pb(NO3)2) available = 0.007 85 mol So all KI will be used and Pb(NO3)2 is in excess by: 0.007 85 – 0.001 805 = 0.006 045 mol A balanced equation shows that 1 mol of PbI2 precipitate will form for every 2 mol of KI that reacts. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 22 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry n ( PbI 2 ) 1 = n (KI) 2 0.003 61 = 0.001 805 mol n(PbI2) = 2 ∴ m(PbI2) = 0.001 805 × 461 = 0.83 g Q35. 4.40 g of P4O6 and 3.00 g of I2 are mixed and allowed to react according to the equation: 5P4O6(s) + 8I2(s) → 4P2I4(s) + 3P4O10(s) a Which reactant is in excess and by what mass? b What mass of the P2I4 forms? c What mass of the P4O10 forms? d What is the total mass of all products? (Hint: compare this to the mass of reactants.) A35. a b 4.40 = 0.0200 mol 220.0 3.00 = 0.011 82 mol n(I2) = 253.8 Use n(P4O6) provided to find n(I2) needed to raect completely with the P4O6. From the equation, 8 mol of I2 reacts with 5 mol of P4O6. n ( I2 ) 8 = n (P4 O 6 ) 5 8 8 n(I2) required = × n(P4O6) = × 0.0200 = 0.0320 mol 5 5 n(I2) available = 0.011 82 mol So there is insufficient I2 to react with all the P4O6. I2 is the limiting reagent and P4O6 is in excess. Use n(I2) provided to find n(P4O6) needed to react completely with the I2. From the equation, 8 mol of I2 reacts with 5 mol of P4O6. 5 5 n(P4O6) required = × n(I2) = × 0.011 82 = 0.007 38 mol 8 8 n(P4O6) available = 0.0200 mol So P4O6 is in excess by 0.0200 – 0.007 38 = 0.0126 mol ∴ m(P4O6) in excess = 0.0126 × 220 = 2.78 g Use the amount of the limiting reagent, I2, to determine the amount of P2I4 formed. From the equation, 8 mol of I2 reacts to form 4 mol of P2I4. n(P2I4) = 4 n(I2) = 8 4× 0.01182 So n(P2I4) = mol = 0.005 91 8 ∴ m(P2I5) = 0.005 91 × 569.6 = 3.37 g n(P4O6) = Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 23 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry c d Use the amount of the limiting reagent, I2, to determine the amount of P4O10 formed. From the equation, 8 mol of I2 reacts to form 3 mol of P4O10. n(P4O10) = 3 n(I2) = 8 3× 0.01182 mol = 0.004 43 So n(P4O10) = 8 ∴ m(P4O10) = 0.004 43 × 284.0 = 1.26 g Total mass of products = 3.37 + 1.26 = 4.63 g 4.63 g of products formed plus 2.78 g unreacted P4O6 = 7.40 g, which is consistent with the total mass of reactants used initially. Q36. 18.0 g of calcium oxide is mixed with 12.0 g of carbon and allowed to react according to the equation: CaO(s) + 3C(s) → CaC2(s) + CO(g)? a Which reactant is in excess and by what mass? b What mass of calcium carbide (CaC2) is produced? A36. a b 18.0 = 0.3209 mol 56.1 12.0 = 1.00 mol n(C) = 12.0 Use n(CaO) provided to find n(C) needed to react completely with the CaO. From the equation, 3 mol of C reacts with 1 mol of CaO. n(C) 3 = n (CaO) 1 n(C) required = 3 × n(MgSO4) = 3 × 0.309 mol = 0.963 mol n(C) available = 1.00 mol So all CaO will be used (and is the limiting reagent) and C is in excess by: 1.00 – 0.963 = 0.037 mol ∴ m(C) in excess = 0.0374 × 12 = 0.449 g Use the amount of the limiting reagent, CaO, to determine the amount of CaC2 formed. From the equation, 1 mol of CaC2 is formed from 1 mol of CaO. n ( CaC 2 ) 1 = n (CaO) 1 So n(CaC2) = 0.3209 mol ∴ m(CaC2) = 0.3209 × 64.1 = 20.6 g n(CaO) = Q37. Lead metal is obtained from lead sulfide mineral through the following reaction: 2PbS(s) + 2C(s) + 3O2(g) → 2Pb(s) +2CO(g) + 2SO2(g) If 1.00 kg of PbS is mixed with 50.0 g of C and excess O2 and allowed to react, what mass of lead metal will be obtained? Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 24 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A37. 1000 = 4.180 mol 239.2 50.0 = 4.167 mol n(C) = 12.0 Use n(PbS) provided to find n(C) needed to react completely with the PbS. From the equation, 2 mol of C reacts with 2 mol of PbS. n ( PbS ) 2 1 = = n (C) 2 1 n(C) required = n(PbS) = 4.180 mol n(C) available = 4.167 mol So there is insufficient C to react with all the PbS. C is the limiting reagent and P4O6 is in excess. Use the amount of the limiting reagent, C, to determine the amount of Pb formed. From the equation, 2 mol of Pb is formed from 2 mol of C. n ( Pb ) 2 1 = = n (C) 2 1 So n(Pb) = n(C) = 4.167 mol ∴ m(Pb) = 4.167 × 207.2 = 863 g Q38. Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas and zinc chloride: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(s) + H2(g) If 5.00 g of zinc is added to 100 mL of 1.00 M HCl, calculate the mass of: a zinc chloride b hydrogen A38. 5.00 = 0.765 mol n(Zn) = 65.4 n(HCl) = 1.00 × 0.100 = 0.100 mol Use n(Zn) provided to find n(HCl) needed to react completely with the Zn. From the equation, 2 mol of HCl reacts with 1 mol of Zn. n ( HCl ) 2 = n ( Zn) 1 n(HCl) required = 2 × n(Zn) = 2 × 0.765 = 0.153 mol n(HCl) available = 0.100 mol So there is insufficient HCl to react with all the Zn. HCl is the limiting reagent and Zn is in excess. a Use the amount of the limiting reagent, HCl, to determine the amount of ZnCl2 formed. From the equation, 1 mol of ZnCl2 is formed from 2 mol of HCl. n ( ZnCl 2 ) 1 = 2 n (HCl) 1 1 × n(HCl) = × 0.100 mol = 0.050 mol So n(ZnCl2) = 2 2 ∴ m(ZnCl2) = 0.050 × 136.4 = 6.82 g n(PbS) = Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 25 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry b Use the amount of the limiting reagent, HCl, to determine the amount of H2 formed. From the equation, 1 mol of ZnCl2 is formed from 2 mol of HCl. n( H2 ) 1 = n (HCl) 2 1 1 So n(H2) = × n(HCl) = × 0.100 mol = 0.050 mol 2 2 ∴ m(H2) = 0.050 × 2.00 = 0.10 g Q39. Zinc metal is reacted with a solution of copper(II) sulfate to produce copper metal as shown by this equation: CuSO4(aq) + Zn(s) → Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq) 3.22 g of powdered zinc is added to 200 mL of 0.500 M copper sulfate solution. Calculate: a the amount (in mol) of both reactants b the mass of copper deposited c the concentration of remaining CuSO4 solution A39. a b c 3.22 = 0.0492 mol 65.4 n(CuSO4) = 0.500 × 0.200 = 0.100 mol Use n(Zn) provided to find n(CuSO4) needed to react completely with the Zn. From the equation, 1 mol of CuSO4 reacts with 1 mol of Zn. n ( CuSO 4 ) 1 = n ( Zn) 1 n(CuSO4) required = n(Zn) = 0.0492 mol n(CuSO4) available = 0.100 mol So all Zn will be used (and is therefore the limiting reagent) and CuSO4 is in excess by 0.100 – 0.0492 = 0.0508 mol Use the amount of the limiting reagent, Zn, to determine the amount of Cu formed. From the equation, 1 mol of Cu is formed from 1 mol of Zn. n ( Cu ) 1 = n ( Zn) 1 So n(Cu) formed = n(Zn) = 0.0492 mol ∴ m(Cu) = 0.0492 × 63.5 = 3.13 g n(CuSO4) in excess after reaction (from above) = 0.0508 mol The volume of the solution is 200 mL or 0.200 L. 0.0508 mol So c(CuSO4) = = 0.254 mol L–1 0.200 L n(Zn) = Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 26 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q40. A standard potassium carbonate solution is made by adding 1.227 g of K2CO3 to a 250 mL volumetric flask and filled to the mark with water. 20.00 mL aliquots are taken and titrated against sulfuric acid, using methyl orange indicator. The average titre was 22.56 mL of sulfuric acid. a Write the equation for the reaction. b Calculate the concentration of the K2CO3 solution. c Calculate the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution. A40. a b c H2SO4(aq) + K2CO3(aq) → K2SO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) m c(K2CO3) = MV 1.227 g = 138.0 g mol −1 × 0.2500 L = 0.035 56 M ( to 4 significant figures) From the equation, 1 mol of H2SO4 reacts with 1 mol of Na2CO3 in the titration. n ( H 2 SO 4 ) 1 = n ( Na 2 CO 3 ) 1 n(H2SO4) = 0.035 56 M × 0.020 00 L = 0.000 7113 mol ∴ c(H2SO4) = 0.000 7113 mol/0.022 56 L = 0.0315 M Q41. A chemistry student is required to determine accurately the concentration of a solution of hydrochloric acid. First, she makes up 250 mL of a standard solution of sodium carbonate. This solution contains 1.358 g of Na2CO3. She then takes a 20.00 mL aliquot of this standard solution and titrates it using the acid. With three titrations, an average 20.24 mL of acid was required to reach the end point. a Write a balanced equation for the reaction involving the titration. b Calculate the concentration of the sodium carbonate solution. c Find the concentration of the acid, as indicated by the student’s results. d If sulfuric acid of approximately the same concentration as the hydrochloric acid was used instead of the hydrochloric acid, what effect would this have had on the volume of acid required for the titration? A41. a b 2HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) m c(Na2CO3) = MV 1.358 g = 106.0 g mol −1 × 0.2500 L = 0.05125 M (four significant figures) Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 27 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry c d From the equation, 2 mol of HCl reacts with 1 mol of Na2CO3 in the titration. n ( HCl ) 2 = n ( Na 2 CO 3 ) 1 n(HCl) = 2 × 0.051 25 M × 0.020 00 L = 0.002 050 mol ∴ c(HCl) = 0.002 050 mol/0.020 24 L = 0.1013 M Approximately half the volume would be used. Q42. 1.104 g of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) is dissolved in 250 mL of water. 20.00 mL aliquots of this solution were titrated with nitric acid. An average titre of 23.47 mL was found. a What is the concentration of the Na2CO3 solution? b What is the concentration of the nitric acid? A42. 2HNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) → 2NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) m a c(Na2CO3) = MV 1.104 g = 106.0 g mol −1 × 0.2500 L = 0.041 66 M (to 4 significant figures) b From the equation, 2 mol of HNO3 reacts with 1 mol of Na2CO3 in the titration. n ( HNO 3 ) 2 = n ( Na 2 CO 3 ) 1 n(HNO3) = 2 × 0.041 66 M × 0.020 00 L = 0.001 666 mol Calculate the concentration of HNO3. c(HNO3) = 0.001 666 mol/0.023 47 L = 0.07 100 M Q43. A particular brand of commercially available Cloudy Ammonia claims to contain ‘not more than 4% ammonia’ by mass. To verify this claim, a 23.27 g sample of the window cleaner was placed in a volumetric flask and diluted to 250 mL. A 20.0 mL aliquot of this solution was titrated with 0.0892 M hydrochloric acid. The volume of the acid used was 21.35 mL. The equation for the reaction is: NH3(aq) + HCl(aq) → NH4Cl(aq) a Calculate the amount of hydrochloric acid, in mol, used in the titration. b Calculate the amount of ammonia, in mol, used in the titration. c Calculate the amount of ammonia, in mol, in the 23.27 g sample of Cloudy Ammonia. d Calculate the mass of ammonia in the 23.27 g sample of Cloudy Ammonia. e Calculate the percentage of ammonia by mass in Cloudy Ammonia. Is the manufacturer’s claim about the ammonia content of their product verified? A43. NH3(aq) + HCl(aq) → NH4Cl(aq) a n(HCl) = 0.0892 M × 0.021 35 L = 0.001 90 mol Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 28 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry b c d e From the equation, 1 mol of NH3 reacts with 1 mol HCl. n ( NH 3 ) 1 = n (HCl) 1 n(NH3) in 20.00 mL = 0.001 90 mol Calculate the amount of NH3 in the 250.0 mL flask, remembering that only 20.00 mL was removed from the 250.0 mL flask. 250.0 n(NH3) in 250.0 mL = 0.001 90 × mol 20.00 = 0.023 8 mol m(NH3) in the original 23.27 g = 0.023 8 mol × 17.0 g mol –1 = 0.405 g 0.405 × 100 % NH3 in the original solution = 23.27 = 1.74% Yes, it is less than 4% by mass, as claimed. Q44. Consider the following equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + MgSO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + Mg(NO3)2(aq) The reaction between lead nitrate and magnesium sulfate also can be represented by an ionic equation. a Write a balanced ionic equation for this reaction. b Explain why ionic equations alone are not used to solve problems that involve reacting quantities. A44. a b Pb2+(aq) + SO42–(aq) → PbSO4(aq) Masses of reactants and products can be calculated only from the formula of the substance being weighed or determined, that is the molecular or empirical formula for the compound. Q45. A 3.45 g piece of chalk contains 96.8% calcium carbonate by mass. Calcium carbonate reacts with 0.250 M hydrochloric acid. a Write a balanced full equation for the reaction that occurs between hydrochloric acid and calcium carbonate. b Calculate the amount (mol) of calcium carbonate present in the piece of chalk. c Calculate the volume of the hydrochloric acid required to react completely with the sample of chalk. d Calculate the mass of chalk required to react with 75.0 mL of the hydrochloric acid. e Suggest a reason for the inclusion of other products in the chalk. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 29 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry A45. a b c d e CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Step 1: Calculate mass of calcium carbonate in chalk. m = 96.8% of chalk 96.8 = × 3.45 100 = 3.34 g Step 2: Calculate amount, in mol, of calcium carbonate. m n = M 3.34 = 100.1 = 0.0334 mol Step 1: Use mole ratios to determine amount of hydrochloric acid. 2 Ratio is 2 : 1, so n(HCl) = × n(CaCO3) 1 2 = × 0.0334 1 = 0.0667 mol Step 2: Calculate volume of hydrochloric acid. n V = c 0.0667 = 0.250 = 0.267 L = 267 mL Step 1: Calculate amount, in mol, of hydrochloric acid. n = cV = 0.25 × 0.075 = 0.019 mol Step 2: Use mole ratios to determine amount of calcium carbonate. 1 Ratio is 1 : 2, so n(CaCO3) = × n(HCl) 2 1 = × 0.019 2 = 0.0094 mol Step 3: Calculate mass of calcium carbonate. m = nM = 0.0094 × 100.1 = 0.94 g Step 4: Calculate mass of chalk. 100 m = × 0.94 96.8 = 0.97 g colouring, adhesive Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 30 Worked solutions to student book questions Chapter 15 Calculations in chemistry: stoichiometry Q46. Include the following information in a question of your own design. • 2HCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) → CaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) • The concentration of the HCl solution is 0.10 M. • The answer is ‘the mass of carbon dioxide is 0.20 g’. A46. A wide range of student responses is possible. Q47. Lead(II) nitrate reacts with potassium iodide according to the following equation: Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) → PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq) The lead iodide forms as a bright yellow precipitate. a Describe an experiment you could carry out to demonstrate that the amount of lead iodide precipitated equals the amount of lead nitrate used. (You could give a description of your experiment or use a flowchart to show the sequence of steps.) b There would be sources of experimental error in this exercise. Give three. c What safety precautions would you need to take? (You may need to consult a reference on safe handling of chemicals to answer this question.) d When solid lead nitrate is mixed with solid potassium iodide (both solids are white) the solid mixture turns yellow. i What causes the colour change? ii Why is a reaction between solids less satisfactory than a reaction between solutions of those solids for measuring reacting quantities? A47. a b c d Weigh out a known mass of lead nitrate. Dissolve the lead nitrate completely in de-ionised water, using the smallest volume practicable. Add potassium iodide solution until, on the addition of further potassium iodide, no more yellow precipitate forms. Filter the lead iodide from the solution, dry the precipitate and weigh it. Calculate the amount of lead nitrate used and the amount of lead iodide obtained. Compare these two values. Incomplete precipitation of lead iodide; loss of precipitate during filtration; incomplete drying of the precipitate. Wear a laboratory coat and safety glasses; wear disposable gloves; do not ingest chemicals. i Lead iodide is formed. ii The particles in the solids do not move freely and so the contact necessary for a reaction to occur is limited. Heinemann Chemistry 1 4th edition Enhanced Copyright © Pearson Australia 2010 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 31